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1. Peter Manseau, “The Pope’s Confounding Consistency”, New York Times, 2015-10-02.

2. "Vatican's doctrinal prefect reaffirms ban on women priests, calls teaching 'definitive'", National Catholic Reporter, 2018-05-29.

3. “Pope Francis at daily Mass on Monday”, Vatican Radio, 2014-06-02

4. “Pope Francis, in Nairobi Slum, Denounces ‘New Forms of Colonialism’”, New York Times, 2015-11-27

5. “The Promise of Birth Control”, Princeton-Brookings Policy Brief, Fall 2015.

6. “Pope Francis faces church divided over doctrine, global poll of Catholics finds”,
Washington Post, 2014-02-09

7. “Catholic Church Grows At A Faster Rate Than The Global Population”, Archdiocese of Sydney (Australia), 2014-05-30

8. “How to debate the rape exception on the streets”, Canadian Centre for Bioethical Reform, 2015-01-21

9. “Church must foster encounter with culture, cardinals say”, CNA, 2013-11-21

10. “A Big Heart Open to God: An interview with Pope Francis”, America: the Jesuit Review,

11. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Juan E. Méndez”, UN, Human Rights Council, Twenty-second session, 2013-02-01, # 46, 50.

See also: The Committee against Torture (CAT Committee), “Reproductive rights violations as torture or ill-treatment”, 2013.

12. “Complementarity” is not used in this sense in canon law, but is an important concept in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which was written principally by Cardinal Ratzinger (who later became Benedict XVI) and issued under John Paul II in 1992. For complementarity of man and woman see §372, for complementarity in marriage see §2333, for equal dignity see §2334 and for a circular argument about gays, see §2357. (Marriage is complementary, gay marriage isn't, so it isn't marriage. An unconvincing attempt to find some reason to reject gay marriage.)  

13. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, “Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Holy See”, 2014-02-25, #27. 

14. # 56.

15. #57 (b).

16. “UN report demands Catholic Church change teaching on homosexuality, abortion”, Life Site News, 2014-02-05

17. “Vatican official slams 'negative approach' of UN report”, CNA, 2014-02-05

18. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Technical guidance on the application of a human rights-based approach to the implementation of policies and programmes to reduce preventable maternal morbidity and mortality”, 2012

19. “Katya”, reader comment, New York Times, 2012-10-06

20. Nicholas D. Kristof, “At 90, This Doctor Is Still Calling”, New York Times, 2014-02-04

21. Maggie Black, “Early Marriage, Child Spouses”, UNICEF, Innocenti Research Centre, Digest no.7, (2001), note 15, p.11, quoted in Law Commission of India, Proposal To Amend The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006, and Other Allied Laws, Report No. 205, February 2008, p. 19. 

22. Karen Sliwaemail, John Anthony, “Late maternal deaths: a neglected responsibility”, Lancet, Volume 387, No. 10033, p2072–2073, 21 May 2016.

23. Nicholas D. Kristof , “Afghan women still in chains”, New York Times, 2004-02-14

24. “Motherhood is life-changing. It shouldn't be dangerous”, International Rescue Committee, 2012-05-02 

25. “Sexual and reproductive rights under threat worldwide”, Amnesty International, 2014-03-06

26. Richrd Horton, “Access to safe abortion and ending stillbirths—together”, Lancet, 2016-05-28

27. Amy Booth, Honduras changes constitution to ban abortion, Lancet, 2021-01-30.

28. Amy Yee, “Access to family planning in Senegal”, Lancet, 2018-03-10

29. “'Immoral sentence': Salvadoran woman jailed for stillbirth set free after 14 years”, Guardian, 2018-03-13

30. Concerned about the Paris Agreement? There’s still hope through girls’ education”, Brookings, 2017-06-02


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