Concordat diplomacy: Tricks of the trade
How does the Vatican get a country to enter into a concordat? A pincer movement can combine diplomatic pressure from the Vatican “state” outside the country with religious pressure from the Church inside the country. Papal trips play a role here and share the ambiguity: they are called both “state visits” and “pilgrimages”.
Vatican diplomacy, described in the Wikileaks as "always active and influential behind the scenes", is conducted by three principal means:
● a diplomatic corps: Vatican diplomacy at home and abroad
● an independent micro-state: The Vatican’s triple crown: church, government and state
● and reciprocal "state visits": The secret costs of papal visits.